In Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAV) also called Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) lower limb arteries get blocked due to calcium, cholesterol and plaque accumulation, leading to reduced oxygen supply. It can also lead to limb amputation, rest pain and gangrene.

Common risk factors -

  1. Diabetes Mellitus
  2. Tobacco – Smoking / chewing (Any age)
  3. Hypertension
  4. Old age
  5. High blood cholesterol levels
  6. Thrombophilia

Symptoms -

The most common symptoms are –

  1. Claudication – Pain in calf or thigh when walking and relief on rest . It might be misunderstood as joint/ muscle pain.
  2. Rest pain & ulcers- Ulcers in foot with severe pain even at rest
  3. Gangrene – Blackening of skin or toes that might require amputation.

Diagnosis -

Consult a Vascular & Endovascular Specialists with the following diagnosis –

  1. Color Doppler
  2. CT angiography
  3. Angiography


  1. Medicines
  2. Walking exercises – To improve claudication for patients with ulcer or gangrene.
  3. Angioplasty – Minimal invasive techniques via needle punctures, using endovascular balloons or stents.
  4. Bypass – Long segment blockages or multilevel blockages are dealt with surgical bypass via patient’s own vein or a synthetic graft from the abdomen to foot according to the level of arterial blockage.